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Swedish researchers say that smoking is associated with both poor blood glucose control and microalbuminuria (protein in the urine) that indicates early kidney disease and increased heart disease risk.
Smoking is also widespread in young people with type 1 and middle-aged people with types 1 and 2.
Smoking habits were reported to the Swedish National Diabetes Register, with data from hospitals and primary healthcare centers.
Patient characteristics included were age, gender, type of treatment, diabetes duration, A1C, body mass index, blood pressure, use of anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs and microalbuminuria.
Smoking type 1 and type 2 patients in 2001 had higher average A1C levels but lower mean body mass index than nonsmokers.
Smokers also had higher frequencies of microalbuminuria in both type 1 and type 2.
—Diabetes Metabolism, June 2004
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