Linking the Eyes and the Heart
More than 11,000 participants in a seven-year study in four U.S. communities had retinal photographs taken between 1993 and 1995. The photographs were assessed for the presence of retinopathy. The seven-year incidence of CHF was 5.4 percent.
The presence of retinopathy, a marker of microvascular disease, indicated twice the risk of CHF. In participants without preexisting coronary heart disease, diabetes or hypertension, retinopathy was associated with a tripled risk of CHF.
Microvascular disease may be an important indicator of development of heart failure in the general population.
—Journal of the American Medical Association, January 2005Click Here To View Or Post Comments