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Continuing the Glucose Revolution

Pearls From The Diabetes Health Archives


Oct 2, 2012

This article was originally published in Diabetes Health in December, 0000.

JOURNEY OF DISCOVERY

Why not calculate the glycemic load in a gram of food?

When I became a type 2 diabetic, I wanted to find a way to manage my weight and blood sugar with diet and exercise. I tried the high carb diet recommended by my doctor and dietitian for a time. It worked wonderfully well while my blood sugar level was high, but when my blood sugar stabilized and I was able to go off medication, I started gaining weight again. The next thing I tried was low carbohydrate dieting. I found it to be a very effective way to lose weight rapidly, but I was unable to endure the regimen for more than a short time.

So I decided to adapt a moderate carbohydrate style of eating. Just enough carbohydrate to make me happy and supply me with the appropriate level of nutrients. I discovered two principles to be very useful for this lifestyle: eating foods with a low energy or calorie density, and eating foods with a low glycemic impact.

ENERGY DENSITY

There are two ways to reduce calories. One is to eat less food. This way seldom works. Another way is to eat food with a lower energy, or calorie density, per serving. If we can increase the volume of food we eat while maintaining the same level of calories, we can feel full and satisfied without weight gain.

The first low energy density diet may have been the Target Diet, developed by exercise guru Covert Bailey and nutritionist Ronda Gates.1 The four food groups (meat, dairy, grains, and fruits or vegetables) were developed into a target. At the center of the target were low fat foods, low sugar foods, and foods with lots of fiber. Moving towards the outer rim were foods with higher levels of fat and sugar. The idea was to select most foods toward the center of the target.

Another useful visual aid was the Healthy Eating Food Pyramid, developed by the Mayo Clinic.2 In this pyramid, the foods with the lowest energy density, non-starchy vegetables, were at the bottom. Above that were the fruits, and rising toward the top of the pyramid were whole grains and starchy vegetables, protein foods, and fats. At the top of the pyramid were indulgences that are not really necessary for our well-being except to provide feelings of comfort.

Dr. Barbara Rolls of Pennsylvania State University developed a way to measure energy density.3 The calculation is performed by dividing the calories in a serving by the serving's weight in grams, producing a number ranging from zero to nine. The maximum energy density is nine because, as mentioned, pure fat has nine calories per gram. All other foods have a lesser value. For example, raisins have an energy density of three: This means that there are three calories per gram in a serving of raisins. Strawberries, on the other hand, have an energy density of only 0.20. This means that there is only one-fifth calorie for each gram of strawberries. Looking at this a different way, fifteen grams of strawberries have the same calories as one gram of raisins. Obviously, the strawberries can satisfy hunger with far fewer calories. Eating foods with lower energy densities can satisfy hunger even during a period of weight loss.

GLYCEMIC IMPACT

Glycemic impact refers to the twin principles of the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). The glycemic index was first conceived by Dr. David Jenkins and Dr. Thomas Wolever of the University of Toronto.4 It was expanded upon by Dr. Jennie Brand-Miller and her associates at the University of Sydney and by Dr. Ann de Wees Allen of the Glycemic Research Institute in Washington, D.C.5

Dr. Allen is currently working on a fat storage index that measures the actual fat stored as a result of eating various kinds of food. One difference between this approach and the glycemic index is that the new approach also measures the fat storage effects of such items as diet drinks and sugarless chewing gum. Fat storage happens because the sweetness of these items results in an increase in insulin levels. This in turn drives blood sugar into storage.

The glycemic index itself measures how rapidly carbohydrate foods are digested, are converted to glucose, and cause blood sugar to rise. Pure glucose is given the maximum value of one hundred, and all other foods are compared against glucose. The hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas, is necessary to move blood sugar into our muscle cells, where it can be used for energy. It is the nature of insulin to move blood sugar into these cells as rapidly as possible. When blood sugar drops back down to its baseline level, it is a signal that it is time to eat again. Carbohydrate foods that are digested slowly cause a slower rise in blood sugar and its accompanying insulin response. This leaves us feeling satisfied over a longer period of time.6

The glycemic load, which was developed by researchers at Harvard University7, applies the glycemic index to specific serving sizes. It is a measurement of how many of the carbohydrate grams in a serving are converted to blood sugar. High glycemic index foods need not be avoided altogether, as many contain valuable nutrients. The glycemic load provides a way of monitoring the glycemic response from higher glycemic index foods.

GLYCEMIC DENSITY

Is there a way to combine energy density and glycemic impact? I developed an approach to this synthesis, which I call glycemic density. I was thinking about the principles of energy density and glycemic impact when a thought flashed through my mind: Why not calculate the glycemic load in a gram of food? Thus, the concept of glycemic density was born. If we tend to eat by weight rather than by macronutrient content, eating foods with a lower glycemic density could be a valuable way of lowering the glycemic impact of our diets.

A variation of this is a table scheme that I have dubbed the glycemic matrix. Four levels of glycemic density are listed along the horizontal axis, and four levels of the glycemic index are listed along the vertical axis. This gives a complete picture of the possible glycemic impact of the various foods listed. Foods with the lowest glycemic density and the lowest glycemic index have the least impact. Foods with the highest glycemic density and the highest glycemic index have the most impact.

These ideas, while they are logically compelling, need to be scientifically verified. As a result, I have been searching for a clinic or university that would be willing to undertake this study. Even though I have conceived this idea, someone else could take over "ownership" of the concept. I can be reached at richardalanprice@gmail.com, should any reader be interested in this project.

CONCLUSION

Many have tried to lose weight and failed, but many of us have been successful. For a number of years, I have been able to maintain my weight and blood sugar through diet and exercise. I am a member of the National Weight Loss Registry, having lost a considerable amount of weight and kept it off for at least five years. Many others can do the same. It is my sincere desire that you are successful in achieving your goals.

Richard A. Price is the author of several books on weight and blood sugar management, including Glycemic Matrix Guide to Low GI and GL Eating, published by Infinity Publishing. He and his wife Arlene are the parents of three children. They live in Albany, Oregon.

REFERENCES

1. Bailey, Covert, The Fit or Fat Target Diet, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984) and Bailey, Covert and Gates, Ronda, Smart Eating, (Boston: Houghton Mufflin Company, 1996). 

2. Hensrud, Donald D., M.D., Mayo Clinic on Healthy Weight, (Rochester, Minn: Mayo Clinic, 2001) and  Hensrud, Donald C., M.D., The Mayo Clinic Plan, (New York: Time, Inc, 2006).

3. Rolls, Barbara, Ph.D. Pennsylvania State University and Barnett, Robert A, The Volumetrics Weight-Control Plan, (New York: HarperTorch Imprint of HarperCollins, 2003) p 12 and Willet, Walter C., M.D., Harvard School of Public Health, Eat, Drink and Be Healthy, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001) p 46.

4. Brand-Miller, Jennie, Ph.D., Wolever, Thomas M.S., M.D. Ph.D. Foster-Powell, Kaye, M. Nutr & Diet, and Colagiuri, Stephen, M.D., The New Glucose Revolution, (New York, Marlow & Company, 2003) p 23.

5. Biography of Dr. Ann de Wees Allen (Glycemic Research Institute), 5 Sep 2008, (www.GlycemicResearchLaboratories.com/BIO-ADW-07/ADW-BIO-07.pdf).

6. Brand-Miller pp 21-24.

7. Brand-Miller p 37.

 


Categories: Blood Sugar, Diets, Food, Glucose, Glycemic Index & Carb Counting, Hormone, Insulin, Losing weight, Low Calorie & Low Fat, Type 2 Issues, Weight Loss



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Comments

Posted by Anonymous on 11 September 2008

A better way of loosing weight I have found was by a well balanced diet between Card and Protein. Using either of the mentioned diets never worked well for me. A good ratio between carbs and protein seem to do the trick. I've lost over 60 pounds my bllod sugar is much easier to control and the best part is that I feel great. Talk to your diabetic councelor and diatetion about it.
Sue Albany OR

Posted by Green Lantern on 12 September 2008

Complicated much?! The glycemic index is extremely variable from person to person (not reliable), and the glycemic load compounds the error. So compounding it further would not seem to be a useful approach.

Too, we should move beyond calories at all--they are based on an outdated and worthless notion of the body = car, and food = fuel. But depending on metabolic efficiency and many other factors, one person's low-cal treat is another's diet-busting mistake. We should throw out calories and think about the food value of what we eat.

The entire middle of the grocery store is packed with what I like to call "edible-non-food." Soda, Twinkies, chocolate-dipped Oreos (as if the regular ones ARE food), Cheez-Its, Mac & Cheese, etc. Humans have not yet evolved to eat grains, and eating grains + sugars seems to induce cravings in a lot of folks that lead to eating larger and larger quantities of what is basically junk. You can chew it & swallow it, but it's not FOOD.

Sticking to the outside of the grocery store--vegetables, domestic fruits (lower sugar than tropical), protein, nuts, and healthy oils like unprocessed coconut and olive will naturally reduce blood sugar. It's more costly than chowing down on bread, tortillas, cereals, crackers, and all of those things we're taught are "essential" and "a food group," but much healthier if you have blood sugar issues...

And a whole lot less complicated than the Glycemic Matrix.

Posted by seashore on 12 September 2008

I doubt that the author followed a real low-carb diet. If one tries to maintain a low-fat diet while achieving a low-carb diet, one faces a quandary. The answer is, forget the low-fat diet. The claim that we should eat a low-fat diet in order to lower our cholesterol, and thereby protect our heart, is bunk. Despite the propaganda over the past half century, there is no real evidence that high cholesterol levels cause heart disease.

Posted by Anonymous on 13 September 2008

Despite the propaganda over the past half century, there is no real evidence that high cholesterol levels cause heart disease.

or that eating fat makes your cholesterol less healthy, or causes more heart disease or cancer or anything else.

Posted by Anonymous on 15 September 2008

'...unable to endure the regimen for more than a short time.' uh, why?

Posted by Anonymous on 4 October 2012

What a pleasant way to start the day. I woke up and checked my email. And lo and behold here was a reprint of an article that I had previously published. My blood sugar is still under control and I am still maintaining my weight loss.

Rich Price


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